A Church Planting Movement (CPM) is a rapid multiplication of indigenous churches planting churches that sweeps through a people group or population segment (Garrison 2004:21). Usually based on the “Training for Trainers” approach (T4T) developed by Ying Kai. See DMM and CPM here.

Creative Commons License (CC)

Creative Commons (CC) licensing enables freedom of sharing course material, as the author gives people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that they have created. https://creativecommons.org/


Disciple Making Movements (DMM) are more or less the equivalent of CPM, but centered around the Discovery Bible Study (DBS) approach taught widely by David Watson. See DMM and CPM compared here.


Evangelism is the activity of leading people to Christ without any form of coercion. See also “Evangelization, world” below.

Evangelization, world

World Evangelization is the result of the process of making disciples of all nations, with the idea of finishing the task in mind (Mat 24:14). See also “Evangelism” above.

Frontier Intercultural Workers

Intercultural (also Cross-cultural) workers focus on making disciples of Christ among the Unreached People Groups (UPGs), i.e. where the church does not yet exist.

Integral Ministry Training (IMT)

Integral Ministry Training (IMT) focusses on “Head, Heart and Hands”  (Brynjolfson and Lewis 2006:28).


Least-Reached People Group (LRP). Equivalent to UPG (Unreached People Group).

Missiological breakthrough

A Missiological breakthrough in missions is the “tipping point”, representing the point of no return, where the number of churches with active believers in a former Unreached People Group are enough to reach their own people without external help. Once this point has been reached, those local believers have the potential to reach every individual in that people group.


This quote from Tim Freeman of Bethany International describes how we use the term "missionary":

The word “missionary” is the Latin rendition of the Greek word for “apostle.” Today, the word “missionary” is often understood completely apart from an apostolic ministry, resulting in much misunderstanding of what a missionary genuinely is! For the purpose of this manual “mission” is defined in the New Testament context. That is, a “missionary” is one who carries the Gospel to where it is not presently incarnated, and there skillfully overcomes cultural, religious, geopolitical, ethnic, and language barriers in order to see people led to Christ and incorporated into a culturally dynamic church where they are discipled. These new believers, in turn, become active in sharing the Gospel among their own people, leading them to Christ and seeing them incorporated into the growing and dynamic church.


Missions is the task of God's people working to complete the Great Commission (Mt 24:14) in loving obedience to Jesus (John 14:15). That means, going and making disciples (Mt 28:19) among ethnic groups (ethné) where the gospel has not yet been established (Rom 15:20).

Mission organization / agency / board

Mission organization includes any organization that has the goal of sending and supporting intercultural workers. Usually these kinds of organizations have specialized knowledge and skills that are not found in the average local church or denomination.

Such organizations may be part of a church, a denomination, or may be an independent Christian organization.

Examples of such organizations are the mission boards of denominations, such as World Outreach International the International Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, or non-denominational missions agencies / associations such as SIM, AIM, or OMF.


An Unreached People Group (UPG) is a people group among which there is no indigenous community of believing Christians with adequate numbers and resources to evangelize this people group without outside (cross-cultural) assistance

(Winter 1984:37) (Lausanne Committee on World Evangelization).


Unenaged Unreached People Groups (UUPG) are groups where there is no church planting strategy underway, consistent with evangelical faith and practice. Gathering believers and planting churches are the keys to establishing an effective and multiplying presence among these people groups.